Rev Endocr Metab Disord. 2006 Jun;7(1-2):91-9.



Anorexia nervosa and osteoporosis.


Misra M, Klibanski A.



Pediatric Endocrine Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital for Children, Boston, MA, USA.



Anorexia nervosa (AN), a condition of severe undernutrition, is associated with low bone mineral density (BMD) in adults and adolescents. Whereas adult women with AN have an uncoupling of bone turnover markers with increased bone resorption and decreased bone formation markers, adolescents with AN have decreased bone turnover overall. Possible contributors to low BMD in AN include hypoestrogenism and hypoandrogenism, undernutrition with decreased lean body mass, and hypercortisolemia. IGF-I, a known bone trophic factor, is reduced despite elevated growth hormone (GH) levels, leading to an acquired GH resistant state. Elevated ghrelin and peptide YY levels may also contribute to impaired bone metabolism. Weight recovery is associated with recovery of BMD but this is often partial, and long-term and sustained weight recovery may be necessary before significant improvements are observed. Anti-resorptive therapies have been studied in AN with conflicting results. Oral estrogen does not increase BMD or prevent bone loss in AN. The combination of bone anabolic and anti-resorptive therapy (rhIGF-I with oral estrogen), however, did result in a significant increase in BMD in a study of adult women with AN. A better understanding of the pathophysiology of low BMD in AN, and development of effective therapeutic strategies is critical. This is particularly so for adolescents, who are in the process of accruing peak bone mass, and in whom a failure to attain peak bone mass may occur in AN in addition to loss of established bone.

Women's Health




Please click on the required question.

Women's Health

Thank you for choosing to visit us.


This is the personal website of David A Viniker MD FRCOG, retired Consultant Obstetrician and Gynaecologist - Specialist Interests - Reproductive Medicine including Infertility, PCOS, PMS, Menopause and HRT.
I do hope that you find the answers to your women's health questions in the patient information and medical advice provided.

I do hope that you find the answers to your women's health questions in the patient information and medical advice provided.

The aim of this web site is to provide a general guide and it is not intended as a substitute for a consultation with an appropriate specialist in respect of individual care and treatment.

David Viniker retired from active clinical practice in 2012.
In 1999, he setup this website - www.2womenshealth.com - to provide detailed
information many of his patients requested. The website attracts thousands of visitors every day from around the world.
Website optimisation (SEO) has became more than an active hobby. If you would like advice on your website, please visit his website Keyword SEO PRO or email him on david@page1-on-google.com.
David Viniker Linkedin Profile