Though non-selective, tolterodine appears to target bladder more than the salivary gland receptors.
Tolterodine is the first antimuscarinic agent to specifically developed for the treatment of overactive bladder. The functional selectivity of tolterodine for the bladder translates into good efficacy and tolerability in patients, including the elderly, with overactive bladder. Tolterodine is as effective as oxybutynin in improving micturition diary variables but is associated with a significantly lower incidence and intensity of dry mouth. This favourable tolerability profile, together with sustained clinical efficacy during long term treatment, places tolterodine as valuable treatment for the symptoms of overactive bladder.0102 Adverse effects, particularly dry mouth, were more common with oxybutynin compared with tolterodine (78% versus 40%). Although tolterodine was deemed more efficacious, the clinical differences in outcome measures may not be that significant. Tolterodine extended release demonstrated an improved efficacy for reducing urge incontinence episodes and a lower Frequency of dry mouth compared with the existing IR twice-daily formulation.0104
The OPERA (Overactive bladder: Performance of Extended Release Agents)0303 trial was a randomized, double-blind, active-control study performed at 71 US study centers from November 21, 2000, to October 18,2001. Reductions in weekly urge urinary incontinence episodes and total incontinence episodes were similar with extended-release formulations of oxybutynin and tolterodine. In the oxybutynin group, micturition Frequency was significantly lower, and the percentage of women reporting no urinary incontinence episodes was significantly higher compared with the tolterodine group. Dry mouth was more common with oxybutynin, but tolerability was otherwise comparable, including adverse events involving the central nervous system.
Definition and Symptoms of Overactive Bladder Syndrome
Overactive bladder syndrome (OBS) is characterised by:-
- urgency, with or without urge incontinence,
- increased Frequency of micturition (>8 voids/day) and
- nocturia (passing urine during the night) in the absence of another identifiable metabolic or pathological process affecting the lower urinary tract.
Prevalence of Overactive Bladder Syndrome
Overactive bladder symptoms in individuals aged >/= 40 years was 16.6% (one person in 6). Frequency (85%) was the most commonly reported symptom, followed by urgency (54%) and urge incontinence (36%). The prevalence of overactive bladder symptoms increased with advancing age. Overall, 60% of respondents with symptoms had consulted a doctor but only 27% were currently receiving treatment.0101
Treatment of Overactive Bladder Syndrome
Treatment options are
- patient education
- Do not cut back on fluid intake too much as the urine will concentrate and irritate the bladder making some symptoms worse - 1.5 to 2 litres is optimum.
- Have easy access to the toilet. Occupational health departments can assist with installation of hand rails or a raised toilet seat. You may find it helpful to have a commode in the bedroom.
- Avoid caffeine. It is found in tea and cola as well as coffee.
- Avoid too much alcohol as it is a diuretic - increasing urine output.
- bladder training - If you get into the habit of emptying the bladder frequently, it will not accept normal volumes of urine. You may have to steadily increase the bladder capacity by lengthening intervals between voiding.
- pelvic floor exercises
Anticholinergic drugs remain the only commonly prescribed drugs.
Other drugs used include:
- estrogens,0301 Estrogen therapy may be of benefit for the irritative symptoms of urinary urgency, Frequency, and urge UI, although this effect may result from reversal of urogenital atrophy rather than a direct action on the lower urinary tract. Low-dose, vaginally administered estrogens have a role in the treatment of urogenital atrophy in postmenopausal women and appear to be as effective as systemic preparations.
- botulinum toxin0401
- and intravesical vanilloids, such as capsaicin and resiniferatoxin.
Anticholinergic (antimuscarinic) drugs
Medication for Overactive bladder syndrome is based on inhibiting the action of acetylcholine, which stimulates detrusor contraction via muscarinic receptors.
Five subtypes of muscarinic receptors within the parasympathetic system have been identified.
Inhibition of these receptors in the brain disrupts cognitive functions such as learning and memory. This may be a particular problem when these drugs are used in the elderly who may already have a degree of confusion.
Non-selective anticholinergics also interfere with muscarinic function in other organ systems such as the eye and salivary glands resulting in dry eyes and a dry mouth.
Most anticholinergics relieve symptoms and have similar efficacy.0302
Adverse effects vary depending on receptor selectivity, peak serum levels and the route of delivery.
Selectivity of anticholinergics.
The most common adverse effect is dry mouth, with a prevalence of about 30%. oxybutynin IR is associated with more severe and frequent dry mouth episodes compared with other preparations, while tolterodine ER seems to have the best tolerability profile.
Other adverse effects include:
- blurred vision,
- nausea and vomiting,
- difficulty in micturition,
- skin reactions,
- arrhythmias and tachycardia.
Effects on the central nervous system (CNS) such as disorientation, hallucination and convulsion can also occur.
Anticholinergics may reduce sweating, leading to hyperthermia and fainting in hot environments.
Antimuscarinic drugs require caution in women with autonomic neuropathy, hiatus hernia and hepatic and renal impairment.
They can worsen hyperthyroidism, coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure and arrhythmias.
Myasthenia gravis, glaucoma, significant bladder outflow obstruction or urinary retention, severe ulcerative colitis and gastrointestinal obstruction are contraindications to anticholinergic use.
In a Cochrane Review, Hay-Smith, et al.34 concluded that there were no statistically significant differences for cure/improvement, leakage episodes or micturition Frequency in 24 hours between ER and IR regimens although the numbers in the study were low.
Overall, ER preparations are associated withfewer adverse effects, particularly dry mouth, and may thus be preferable, although the discontinuation rates caused by adverse events were similar between the two formulations. In the current economic climate cost may be a factor in deciding between ER and IR preparations.
Nocturia is a common and troublesome symptom which can be caused by medical conditions such as renal failure, hypercalcaemia and diabetes. Desmopressin, an analogue of antidiuretic hormone, is effective. It can, however, cause fluid overload and hyponatraemia.8 Imipramine, a tricyclic antidepressant with anticholinergic effects, is beneficial.
It is worrying that up to 32% of the elderly use two or more drugs with anticholinergic effects. Those that spare M1 receptors have a lower impact on central nervous system function. The extent to which anticholinergics impair CNS function is proportional to their ability to cross the blood�brain barrier. Oxybutynin is the one most likely to cross the blood�brain barrier. Despite this, it is still widely used to treat overactive bladder syndrome in older patients because of the low cost.
Agents such as tolterodine and darifenacin have low lipophilicity and are thought to be more suitable for older patients. Tolterodine IR and oxybutynin IR have a similar efficacy but the former has fewer adverse effects in patients over 50 years of age. Trospium is the least likely to impair CNS function based on neuropsychological and coordination tests.When considering use of an antimuscarinic agent for the treatment of overactive bladder syndrome in elderly patients, prescribers should routinely consider the agent's receptor selectivity and ability to cross the BBB. The medical history should include all current medications that may contribute to the anticholinergic burden and cognitive impairment.0502
Related Medical Abstracts - Click on the paper title:-
- Treatment outcomes in the STAR study: a subanalysis of solifenacin 5 mg and tolterodine ER 4 mg.(2007-01)
- The effects of antimuscarinics on health-related quality of life in overactive bladder: a systematic review and meta-analysis.(2006-01)
- Antimuscarinic agents: implications and concerns in the management of overactive bladder in the elderly.(2005-03)
- Which anticholinergic drug for overactive bladder symptoms in adults.(2005-02)
- Efficacy and tolerability of darifenacin, a muscarinic M3 selective receptor antagonist (M3 SRA), compared with oxybutynin in the treatment of patients with overactive bladder.(2005-01)
- Randomized, double-blind placebo- and tolterodine-controlled trial of the once-daily antimuscarinic agent solifenacin in patients with symptomatic overactive bladder.(2004-04)
- Randomized, double-blind placebo controlled trial of the once daily antimuscarinic agent solifenacin succinate in patients with overactive bladder.(2004-03)
- A randomized, double-blind, parallel-group comparison of controlled- and immediate-release oxybutynin chloride in urge urinary incontinence.(2004-02)
- Use of botulinum-A toxin for the treatment of refractory overactive bladder symptoms: an initial experience.(2004-01)
- Prospective, randomized, double-blind study of the efficacy and tolerability of the extended-release formulations of oxybutynin and tolterodine for overactive bladder: results of the OPERA trial.(2003-03)
- Effectiveness of anticholinergic drugs compared with placebo in the treatment of overactive bladder: systematic review.(2003-02)
- The role of estrogens in female lower urinary tract dysfunction.(2003-01)
- Efficacy and safety of transdermal oxybutynin in patients with urge and mixed urinary incontinence.(2002-01)
- Tolterodine once-daily: superior efficacy and tolerability in the treatment of the overactive bladder.(2001-04)
- Tolterodine: a review of its use in the treatment of overactive bladder.(2001-02)
- How widespread are the symptoms of an overactive bladder and how are they managed? A population-based prevalence study.(2001-01)
- Dry mouth with conventional and controlled-release oxybutynin in urinary incontinence. The Ditropan XL Study Group.(2000-01)
- Urinary incontinence and depression.(1999-01)
- Single dose imipramine reduces nocturnal urine output in patients with nocturnal enuresis and nocturnal polyuria.(1997-01)
Please click on the required question.
- Q 29. 1 How is urine produced?
- Q 29. 2 What is cystitis?
- Q 29. 3 How prevalent is cystitis?
- Q 29. 4 What is honeymoon cystitis?
- Q 29. 5 What are Frequency and nocturia?
- Q 29. 6 How prevalent are Frequency and nocturia?
- Q 29. 7 What is urinary incontinence?
- Q 29. 8 What is stress incontinence of urine?
- Q 29. 9 What is urgency, urge incontinence and the urge syndrome?
- Q 29. 10 What causes stress and urge incontinence?
- Q 29. 11 What is dribbling incontinence?
- Q 29. 12 How prevalent is urinary incontinence?
- Q 29. 13 What is the urethral syndrome?
- Q 29. 14 How can I record my bladder problems and monitor the effects of treatment?
- Q 29. 15 What simple measures are available to reduce urinary incontinence?
- Q 29. 16 What are pelvic floor exercises?
- Q 29. 17 How successful are pelvic floor exercises?
- Q 29. 18 What is bladder training?
- Q 29. 19 How effective is bladder training?
- Q 29. 20 Are there any alternatives to bladder training for urgency symptoms?
- Q 29. 21 If simple measures do not suffice, what else is available for the treatment of urinary stress incontinence?
- Q 29. 22 What are urodynamic studies?
- Q 29. 23 Where can I obtain further information about bladder problems?
- Q 29. 24 Support Groups.
This is the personal website of David A Viniker MD FRCOG, retired Consultant Obstetrician and Gynaecologist - Specialist Interests - Reproductive Medicine including Infertility, PCOS, PMS, Menopause and HRT.
I do hope that you find the answers to your women's health questions in the patient information and medical advice provided.
I do hope that you find the answers to your women's health questions in the patient information and medical advice provided.
Answers to FAQs on women's health, patient information and medical advice by David A Viniker MD FRCOG, Consultant Obstetrician and Gynaecologist (Gynecologist - OBGYN), Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology,
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