Introduction to 2womenshealth.com
- 1 For whom has this website been written information?
- 2 Why has this book been written information?
- 3 What are the objectives of this book information?
- 4 What is gynaecology information?
- 5 What is reproductive medicine information?
- 6 How prevalent are gynaecological problems information?
- 7 How much information do patients want to know about their condition?
- 8 Gynaecological problems and well-being.
Anatomy and Physiology
- 1 What is meant by the term anatomy?
- 2 What is the anatomy of the external genital area?
- 3 What are the internal genital organs?
- 4 What is the peritoneum?
- 5 Why did I develop into a girl?
- 6 How do sperm development and egg development differ?
- 7 What is meant by the term physiology?
- 8 What is a hormone?
- 9 What are steroid hormones?
- 10 What is sex hormone binding globulin?
- 11 What controls sex hormone release?
- 12 How do oestrogens and androgens affect me?
- 13 What are progesterone and progestogens?
- 14 How do my menstrual cycles occur?
- 15 Support Groups.
- 1 How does the body react to illness?
- 2 What are the disease processes that could be causing symptoms?
- 3 What is a congenital abnormality?
- 4 How can trauma affect the female genital tract?
- 5 What is the role of infection in disease processes?
- 6 Can metabolic (chemical) disorders affect the female reproductive system?
- 7 What is the role of the immune system in gynaecological disease?
- 8 Are tumours a frequent consideration in gynaecology?
- 9 How can the gynaecologist counter the ageing process?
- 10 Do psychological problems enter the realms of gynaecology?
- 11 What is a syndrome?
- 12 Support Groups.
Diagnosis and Treatment in Gynaecology
- 1 Which doctor should I see?
- 2 What are symptoms and signs?
- 3 How can we be certain whether an abnormality that my doctor has found is the cause of my problem or an incidental finding?
- 4 How do doctors arrive at a diagnosis?
- 5 What does a gynaecologist do during a consultation?
- 6 What is the purpose of the pelvic examination?
- 7 Will a blood test to assess a hormone level provide a guide to treatment.
- 8 I have a phobia about blood tests. What should I do?
- 9 What is pelvic ultrasound?
- 10 What are CAT and MRI scans?
- 11 Will my general practitioner receive information from my specialist gynaecologist?
- 12 Will I see the same specialist every time I attend the out-patients clinic?
- 13 What is known about emotion. Information?
- 14 Could my emotional problems be of hormonal origin?
- 15 Does my doctor understand my anxieties and concerns about my gynaecological problem?
- 16 How much information do patients want about their condition?
- 17 Will the doctor listen to my views on how my problems should be managed?
- 18 How do doctors decide on the best treatment?
- 19 How do doctors decide on the best hormone treatment?
- 20 How long will my hormone treatment be effective?
- 21 What are the risks of surgery?
- 22 How long do gynaecological operations take?
- 23 Have there been advances in gynaecological surgical treatment?
- 24 I have been offered a choice of treatments. How can I decide which will be best for me?
- 25 What is the place of support groups?
- 26 Where can I obtain more information?
- 27 Are there any dangers in acquiring health information on the internet?
- 28 Support Groups.
Women’s health issues include:
- general health issues such as exercise and nutrition and heart disease and prevention
- adolescentproblems including anorexia nervosa
- investigations and treatments for infertility, including IVF, miscarriage and recurrent miscarriage
- polycystic ovary syndrome
- cervical erosion
- vaginal discharge and the commonest cause is bacterial vaginosis
- heavy periods
- painful periods
- PMS – about 80% of women are troubled to a lesser or greater degree.
- pelvic pain
- sexual problems
- sexually transmitted diseases including genital herpes
- menopause when the question of HRT or alternatives such as black cohosh will arise
- bladder problems including overactive bladder syndrome
- vaginal prolapse
- urinary tract infection
- urinary incontinence
- cancers such as cervical cancer, ovarian cancer and breast cancer.
- depression in women may be related to PMS, the menopause or sexual problems.
frequently Asked Questions On Women’s Health
Women’s health problems are extremely common. The following are just a few of the more frequent questions that women often ask themselves and their professional advisors including their gynaecologist.
- Is my body working normally?
- When should I seek professional advice?
- Will I require tests and if so what will these involve for me?
- Do I require treatment?
- What will be my treatment options?
- How can I tell which will be the best treatment for me?
- How will I benefit from a particular treatment?
- Could a proposed treatment cause problems (side effects) for me?
- Could I change my treatment if I am not happy with it?
- What is the best way for me to avoid an unplanned pregnancy?
- Will we be able to have children when we wish?
- What will happen to me at the menopause?
There are seldom simple answers to these questions.
- Every woman is an individual, with her own particular set of circumstances.
- Every clinical problem requires evaluation and the potential benefits and risks of investigations and treatments demand careful consideration and explanation.
- If you have a recurring pain that does not require even a paracetamol tablet it is unlikely that you would require an operation to determine the cause or remove the source of the pain – the risks of surgery are likely to be greater than the potential benefits.
For a gynaecologist, and in particular for those sub-specialising in reproductive medicine, there are quite complex issues to be addressed. It is relatively simple for a patient to understand that a ‘joint is wearing out’ or that a ‘heart-valve is leaking’ but hormones are an enigma to the majority. The interplay of the various hormones that are involved in the menstrual cycle, fertility, general health and the psyche are not yet fully understood even by specialists.
Historically in medicine, there was a paternalistic approach to deciding what should be done for a patient: the physician knew best and the patient accepted the recommendation without question. This era has ended, and has been replaced by consumerism and the movement toward shared decision-making.
With increasing attention to lifestyle and health, a woman’s life can be managed more effectively and can improve her well-being, self-esteem, and energy. With improvement in health over the last century, women can expect to live longer (life expectancy).
Promoting women’s health physically and mentally should be a top priority internationally. An increasing awareness in women’s health matters means that more women are taking their own health concerns and those of their family and friends ever more seriously. This website has been developed to help you become more aware of your health and the things you can do to feel and stay healthy. Here, you will find the latest healthcare news and information as it relates to women’s health, from before puberty to after menopause. As advances and debates relating to women’s health take place, the background information from the medical journals are added.
This website seeks to raise awareness about the range of factors that affect women’s health. Treatment within women’s health is one of the most rapidly advancing areas of medicine. Today women’s health is coming to be viewed as a distinctive area. This website is devoted to women’s health and makes finding information about women’s health speedily.
A woman’s body is continually reminding her about her femininity.
- First there are the changes in body shape during puberty.
- This is followed by the menarche (first period) and
- then monthly periods.
The majority of women have some symptoms associated with their menstrual cycles such as
- or pelvic discomfort,
- premenstrual tension or
- heavy periods.
Most women have a little discharge from the vagina.
Four out of five women will develop menopausal symptoms.
These are all very personal and intimate matters that are rarely discussed with others.
frequently the relationship with a partner may be affected sometimes leading to marital disharmony.
The media appear to thrive on women’s health issues, harping on anxieties, particularly when there is no other newsworthy story. We all know the main bad things that affect women’s health. The main three obvious ones are to stop smoking, improve diet and increase exercise.
Good health is about prevention and management rather than curing symptoms. Positive health management can prevent altogether or minimise health issues. Women’s Health today is about education and then prevention. It is not about apathy and then corrective action.
With increasing attention to lifestyle and health, a woman’s life can be managed more effectively and can improve her well-being, self-esteem, and energy.
Women?s health concerns cover a wide spectrum. While many health conditions affect both men and women, a number of health issues affect only women and some are more prevalent in women. In addition, a number of medical conditions may cause different symptoms in women, affect women differently than men, and may require different treatment or prevention protocols.
Besides conditions such as menopause, ovarian and cervical cancer, and pregnancy, which are unique to women, other medical conditions play a large role in women?s health. Breast cancer and osteoporosis are thought of as women?s health concerns, although they can occur in men. Heart disease in a serious concern to both men and women, but risk factors and preventive strategies may differ in women.
Health professionals, including nurses, medical students, and doctors studying for postgraduate qualifications, including the DRCOG and MRCOG, may find the presentation, with links to clinically relevant medical abstracts, to be of assistance.
Good health and self-esteem are inter-dependent.
An Introduction To Gynaecology
Gynaecology is the clinical speciality caring for problems associated with the female genital tract and a gynaecologist is a specialist in gynaecology. Gynaecology is a hospital based specialty. In some countries, including the UK, women must first see a general practitioner (GP; also known as a family practitioner) who refers them to the gynaecologist as required.
Treatments For Women’s Health Conditions
It is impossible to include a detailed discussion of all the drugs (medicines) that could be used by a gynaecologist.
A brief synopsis of those more frequently used has been included (medication).
As with all surgical specialties, gynaecologists employ medical or surgical therapies, depending on the exact nature of the symptoms and condition. They often employ standard drug therapies, such as antibiotics, and antiemetics. Additionally, gynaecologists make frequent use of “specialized” hormone-modulating therapies such as clomiphene citrate and hormonal contraception) to treat disorders of the female genital tract that are responsive to pituitary or ovarian hormones.
Information for Patients
- It is apparent to all doctors that patients are seeking ever more detailed explanations for their symptoms and information to assist them with treatment options. There is a particular interest in women’s health.
- Many will have found a book or article in a magazine.
- Although few patients would wish to reach into the very depths of current research, some go as far as a computer search on the internet. These sites can provide a useful source of information although caution is required (internet information). At the end of most sections of this book, a few selected Web sites have been included, which may set you on the road to some fascinating surfing.
- Details of support groups have also been provided.
In gynaecology, and particularly in reproductive medicine, there are quite complex issues to be addressed.
It is relatively simple for a patient to understand that a ‘joint is wearing out’ or that a ‘heart-valve is leaking’ but hormones are an enigma to the majority. The interplay of the various hormones that are involved in the menstrual cycle, fertility, general health and the psyche are not yet fully understood even by specialists.
Historically in medicine, there was a paternalistic approach to deciding what should be done for a patient: the physician knew best and the patient accepted the recommendation without question. This era is ending, being replaced with consumerism and the movement toward shared decision-making.
- Patient-doctor communication.(2003-01)
- The provision of information leaflets before colposcopy beneficial? A prospective randomised study. (1999-01)
- Patient-based evaluation of a colposcopy information leaflet (1997-01)
- Informed choice for users of health services: Views on ultrasonography leaflets of women in early pregnancy, midwives, and ultrasonographers (1996-01)
- Recall, retention, utilisation and acceptability of written health education materials (1995-01)
- The write stuff. Simple guidelines can help you write and design effective patient education materials (1995-02)
- Strategies for teaching patients: a meta-analysis (1995-03)
- Exploring information-exchange in consultation: The patients’ view of performance and outcomes (1995-04)
- Patient education: An example of one-to-one communication (1995-05)
- The effect of educational brochures on follow-up compliance in women with abnormal Papanicolaou smears (1994-01)
- Approaches to the measurement of explanation and information-giving in medical consultations: a review of empirical studies (1984-01)
- A method for better physician-patient communication (1977)
- Physicians in health care management: 7. The patient-physician partnership: Changing roles and the desire for information.
A modern woman wishes to understand her treatment and to be treated with understanding. She requires sufficient knowledge to assist her in making an informed choice whenever there are treatment options. Successful gynaecological treatment relies on a partnership between the patient and her chosen doctor. In writing 2 women’s health.com’ the author has attempted to explain:-
- most aspects of gynaecology in simple terms.
- essential medical words and expressions.
- the structure (anatomy) and function (physiology) of the female reproductive organs.
- the disorders (pathology) that may occur with the structure or function of the female genital organs.
- the medical and surgical treatment options.
- the potential advantages and disadvantages of each treatment.
Knowledge can be compared to an iceberg. From a distance it appears tiny but as we get closer we see, learn and understand more although we also appreciate how much more is still to be revealed. We must ensure a diligent balance between early utilisation of medical advances and safety. Knowledge, like an iceberg, should be treated with a combination of respect and caution to avoid potential hidden dangers of titanic proportions. Many patients, as well as doctors, are understandably bewildered by this. Examples of these issues are addressed in this book whenever opportunity has arisen.
This website has been written for those who may have a gynaecological problem, for those who know someone who has, and for those who wish to learn more about women’s health. It is for discerning people who wish to appreciate the background to treatment options. Nurses, medical students, trainee gynaecologists and general practitioners looking for a text that discusses the issues rather than just the essential clinical facts may find this book helpful not only for gynaecology and women’s health, but as a framework for the caring aspects in the art of medicine.
Related Medical Abstracts – Click on the paper title.
- Physicians in health care management: 7. The patient-physician partnership: Changing roles and the desire for information.
- Thank you for choosing to visit us.
This is the personal website of David A Viniker MD FRCOG, retired Consultant Obstetrician and Gynaecologist – Specialist Interests – Reproductive Medicine including Infertility, PCOS, PMS, Menopause and HRT.
I do hope that you find the answers to your women’s health questions in the patient information and medical advice provided.- Specialist Interests – Reproductive Medicine including Infertility, PCOS, PMS, Menopause and HRT.I do hope that you find the answers to your women’s health questions in the patient information and medical advice provided.
The aim of this web site is to provide a general guide and it is not intended as a substitute for a consultation with an appropriate specialist in respect of individual care and treatment.David Viniker retired from active clinical practice in 2012.
In 1999, he setup this website – www.2womenshealth.com – to provide detailed
information many of his patients requested. The website attracts thousands of visitors every day from around the world.
Website optimisation (SEO) has became more than an active hobby. If you would like advice on your website, please visit his website Keyword SEO PRO or email him on firstname.lastname@example.org.
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