The arrival of refined technologies including ultrasound assessment of the pelvic organs (pelvic ultrasound), hormone tests, laser, embryology, and sophisticated hormonal treatment have changed the direction of the speciality from its surgical origins ever towards a more medical approach. Just as obstetrics and gynaecology became too large a discipline to remain within general surgery, so in turn there has been a need for sub-specialisation. Reproductive medicine focuses on medical, as opposed to surgical, treatment of gynaecological problems. Hormones are the major, but by no means the only, component of treatment.


Reproductive medicine includes the medical treatment of menstrual (period) problems (Chapters 6, 7, 8 and 24), infertility (Chapters 9-11), premenstrual tension (Chapter 25) and the menopause (Chapters 26-8). The other sub-specialities include feto-maternal medicine (high-risk obstetrics), oncology (malignancy - Chapter 32) and uro-gynaecology (bladder problems amenable to gynaecological intervention Chapters 29 and 30).



Women's Health





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Women's Health

Thank you for your visiting us at 2WomensHealth.com.

This is the personal website of David A Viniker MD FRCOG, retired Consultant Obstetrician and Gynaecologist - Specialist Interests - Reproductive Medicine including Infertility, PCOS, PMS, Menopause and HRT.
I do hope that you find the answers to your women's health questions in the patient information and medical advice provided.

Evidence based answers to FAQs on women's health, patient information and medical advice by David A Viniker MD FRCOG


The aim of this web site is to provide a general guide and it is not intended as a substitute for a consultation with an appropriate specialist in respect of individual care and treatment.

David Viniker retired from active clinical practice in 2012.
In 1999, he setup this website - www.2womenshealth.com - to provide detailed
information many of his patients requested. The website attracts thousands of visitors every day from around the world.
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