Male factor infertility is any condition in which the man adversely affects the chances of initiating a pregnancy with his female partner. When a couple fail to produce a pregnancy after 12 months of unprotected intercourse with a female partner who is ovulating and has open fallopian tubes, male factor infertility should be suspected. Male infertility has a number causes. They may be classified into three groups: (a) pre-testicular, (b) testicular, and (c) post-testicular. Examples of these include:

Pre-testicular Male Factor Infertility

  • endocrine disorders - low levels of testosterone or thyroid hormone
  • Inherited or chromosomal disorders, including cystic fibrosis and Klinefelter's syndrome
  • anti-sperm antibodies
  • Exposure to toxins, such as radiation or industrial chemicals
  • Medications and drugs, including psychiatric medications, alcohol, and anabolic steroids used for bodybuilding
  • General illnesses, including kidney disease, cirrhosis and malnutrition

Testicular Male Factor Infertility

  • deficient sperm production (sometimes related to use of alcohol, tobacco or other illicit drugs)
  • injury to the testicle
  • undescended testes on one or both sides
  • childhood german measles infection, mumps
  • and varicose veins around the testicle (varicocele)

Post-testicular Male Factor Infertility
  • blockage of the sperm delivery routes e.g vasectomy, failed vasectomy reversal
  • Inability to ejaculate into the vagina. This accounts for 4-6% of male infertility. This form of male factor infertility could be due to impotency, premature ejaculation, or the inability to ejaculate.

In the majority of men suffering male infertility, physical and genital examinations reveal no cause of infertility, but in a few cases, it may reveal abnormalities such as poor facial and bodily hair, enlarged breasts, undescended testis, small testes or varicocele.

The use of cell phones may have an adverse effect on semen quality.0801

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