Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2002 Nov;81(11):1047-52.

Characterization of women with a history of recurrent vulvovaginal candidosis.

Novikova N,Mardh PA.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.


To characterize history, signs, and symptoms in women with a history of recurrent vulvovaginal candidosis (RVVC) and who had consulted with symptoms generally associated with the condition.


Eighty-three women with a history consistent with RVVC were interviewed regarding 32 parameters and 10 signs found at the clinical examination were noted. Candida cultures were made from the introitus and the posterior vaginal fornix.


Only in a few of the 43 women with and the 40 without a positive yeast culture could any of the many etiological factors that have been associated with RVVC be traced. Only two factors differed between the groups, namely yogurt intake, which was reported by 28 (68%) and 38 (95%) women in these groups, respectively. Vaginal douching was performed by 10 (23%) women in the Candida-positive group and by 17 (42%) women in the Candida-negative group. Pruritis and burning occurred in 31 (72%) and 22 (51%) of culture-positive patients, which was less frequent than in the culture-negative group, i.e. reported by 19 (47%) and 9 (22%) patients, respectively (p = 0.022 and p = 0.007). Edema (p = 0.026) of the vulva as well as erythema (p = 0.019) and edema (p = 0.008) of the vaginal mucosa, caseous discharge (p = 0.016), were found more often in the Candida culture-positive cases.


History and results of clinical examination of patients with RVVC are not enough to distinguish those who are culture-positive from those who are culture-negative for Candida from the genital tract.

Women's Health

Thank you for choosing to visit us.

This is the personal website of David A Viniker MD FRCOG, retired Consultant Obstetrician and Gynaecologist - Specialist Interests - Reproductive Medicine including Infertility, PCOS, PMS, Menopause and HRT.
I do hope that you find the answers to your women's health questions in the patient information and medical advice provided.

I do hope that you find the answers to your women's health questions in the patient information and medical advice provided.

The aim of this web site is to provide a general guide and it is not intended as a substitute for a consultation with an appropriate specialist in respect of individual care and treatment.

David Viniker retired from active clinical practice in 2012.
In 1999, he setup this website - - to provide detailed
information many of his patients requested. The website attracts thousands of visitors every day from around the world.
If you would like advice on how to make more from your website, please visit his website Keyword SEO PRO or email him on

David Viniker Linkedin Profile