What causes painful sex (dyspareunia)?

Painful sex is a very distressing problem, which may have dire effects on relationships with partners. As a result of intercourse difficulties couples sometimes split up because of it.

Emotions and self-esteem are likely to suffer.

Two types of painful sex relating to their site are recognised - superficial dyspareunia and deep dyspareunia. Sometimes there may be more than one causative factor involved.

Superficial dyspareunia

Superficial dyspareunia is pain during sex associated with problems around the entrance to the vagina. It may be due to:-